1. Sleepy Teens, Early Classes: Your Comments This is the VOA Special English Education Report. Last week, we talked about the conflict between sleepy teenagers and early morning classes. Many people commented on our website and Facebook page. For example, Damla Ece in Turkey wrote: I agree with the idea of starting lessons later so teenagers can feel better in the morning. But sleeping more than seven hours can be wasting time for students. Tran in Vietnam disagreed: I think teenagers, on the average, need eight to ten hours of sleep everyday. It's useless trying to force them to concentrate while they can't concentrate. Getty Images/Stockbyte Platinum Enilton Neymakes in Brazil goes to sleep late and wakes up in the afternoon. That's my life, but at least I am studying. Afshin Heydari from Tehran says schools should start early to avoid heavy traffic later in the morning. And Suze from Jordan wrote: When I was a teenager, I enjoyed taking my courses as early as possible. That way I could find a long time in the day to do my own activities. But Azra from Kyrgyzstan said the reason schools start early there is a lack of classrooms. Omid in Afghanistan calls teenagers the destiny makers of a society. So they must be more alert and active in order to be more successful.

And Joruji in Japan wrote: When I was a teenager, I used to get up before six to go to school, which was far from home, and I don't remember having problems. I think nowadays the Internet, TV games and cell phones make teens go to sleep later. Thirty-year-old Kika in Spain says: In my opinion, young people are very lazy. But Dennis Jin disagrees: For high school students in China, we must reach class at six-twenty in the morning and be back home usually at ten in the evening. Then we'll have some extra schoolwork to do. Can you imagine how long could we sleep every day? Teenagers are not the only ones who suffer. Kathy in Canada wrote: My daughter likes complaining about everything in the morning, and I know that this is from lack of sleep. I wish schools should change their start time to eight-thirty or nine a.m. Vidara Mom, a Cambodian living in New Zealand, says school starts at nine and finishes at three p.m. Therefore the students have heaps of times to interact and play before they go home. Wibi Sebastian from Indonesia wishes school started at seven-thirty instead of seven. But one thing, don't forget to eat breakfast! And Naima Star in Libya wrote: Getting up so early in the morning and leaving the warm bed is so difficult, especially in the cold weather. It reminds me of that old song: "It's nice to get up in the morning, but it's

nicer to stay in bed." And that's the VOA Special English Education Report. You can comment on all of our programs at 51voa.com, and on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I'm Jim Tedder. 2. Plan Aims t Cut TB Deaths by Half in Five Years The consortium of public, private and civil groups announced the plan Wednesday, saying they hope to prevent 5 million deaths from TB over the next five years through better testing, improved diagnosis and more effective drugs. The Health Commissioner for Johannesburg's Gauteng Province, Qedani Mahlangu, noted that South Africa is one of several emerging nations in Africa and Asia with a high incidence of TB. She said this is partly because TB often attacks people whose immune systems have been weakened by the HIV/AIDS virus. "South Africa has a huge TB problem," said Mahlangu. "And alongside the HIV and AIDS epidemic, it is something we are fully all to [fight] and it is something that as government we are doing all we can to attack, to deal with this problem." Tuberculosis is a highly contagious disease that is transmitted usually by the cough of an infected person. Experts say it is preventable and curable, but it often goes undetected and treatment for it is lengthy.

德州扑克在线网站The plan hopes to develop new tests that can detect the disease immediately. These would replace current tests that must be sent to special laboratories and, in less developed countries, can take weeks to complete. The plan also hopes to develop new courses of treatment to replace current regimes that are less effective against new drug-resistant strains of TB. South Africa Coordinator for the Community Initiative for TB Carol Nawina Nyirenda said victims of TB support the plan because it provides a blueprint for eliminating the disease.? "For me and many others out there who live with the reality of TB and TB/HIV, for us this global plan means hope, a hope that countries will take TB seriously, a hope for a future free of TB, a hope for our children and children's' children to have a future free of TB." Nyirenda added that an important part of the plan is to engage victims of the disease in the effort because that will help reach the targets sooner. The Partnership says $47 billion will be needed during the next five years to implement the plan. The head of the Global Business Coalition on HIV, Tuberculosis and Malaria, John Tedstrom, said TB is a concern to business because it affects productivity and the families of employees. "Tuberculosis matters

to business。 Conquering TB is important to business。 And business is going to be a partner in this venture until we are all done。" The Partnership said it faces a funding gap of $14 billion for its plan。 It called for the governments of wealthy nations and emerging economies to help meet the shortfall。 3。 People Have Produced Wine Since Ancient Times FAITH LAPIDUS: I'm Faith Lapidus。 DOUG JOHNSON: And I'm Doug Johnson with EXPLORATIONS in VOA Special English。 Since ancient times, people have grown grapes to produce wine。 Join us as we tell about the history of wine and how it is made。 We will also visit a vineyard in the United States and meet a winemaker。 FAITH LAPIDUS: It is hard to say how long people have been drinking wine。 Wine is far older than recorded history。 Some experts say it is as old as civilization itself。 The first wine ever made was probably an accident。 People in ancient times might have picked ripe grapes。 Some juicy grapes at the bottom of the container were crushed together。 As the grapes broke open, yeasts on the skins went to work turning sugar from the fruit into alcohol。 This is the fermentation process that turns grape juice into wine。 DOUG JOHNSON: Winemaking probably began in the ancient Near East

and Egypt. Burial places in ancient Egypt provide information about wine and its importance in Egyptian culture. Egyptian rulers were bur with wine offerings to help them in the afterlife. Archeological evidence also suggests that some of the earliest known wine producers were in Georgia and Iran thousands of years ago. These jars from the Zagros Mountains in Iran are believed to contain evidence of the oldest-known wine. FAITH LAPIDUS: North Africa, Spain, France and Italy had their first vineyards during the Greek and Phoenician Empires. The ancient Romans greatly expanded the winemaking industry. By the end of the Roman Empire, almost all of the major wine producing areas still in production today had been established in western Europe. During the period of the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church owned many of the great vineyards of Europe. Wine also played an important part in the Church's religious ceremonies. Wine was not just about having an enjoyable drink. It could be stored for future use. And, it was nutritious and often much safer to drink than water during early times, especially in cities. Some experts say that up until the the sixteen hundreds in Europe, wine was one of the only prepared drinks. After that, wine had competition from beer, coffee, and tea. DOUG JOHNSON: One thing was very important for the start of the

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